Policies and barriers


Overview of the EU-27 building policies and programs and cross-analysis on Member States nZEB-plans

The report provides a brief overview of buildings policy frameworks in the EU-27 countries, including building codes requirements, enforcement and compliance, renewable energy use in buildings, nearly zero energy buildings policies and main economic instruments in place in the EU-27 countries.


A particular focus has been given to the 9 target countries of the ENTRANZE project (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Romania and Spain). On the whole, the report comprises dedicated factsheets for each ENTRANZE target country, presenting national and regional policies, energy standards in the building sector (e.g. building codes requirements), updates on implementation status of EPCs, nearly zero energy buildings, cost-optimality, as well as financial support programs for new low energy buildings/passive houses and building retrofits. The country factsheets are built based on information provided by ENTRANZE consortium partners and on the CA-EPBD report from 2010 on implementing the Energy performance of Buildings Directive.


The report is available here:


Overview and assessment of new and innovative integrated policy sets that aim at the nZEB standard

In many countries transforming the building sector is one of the key elements for moving the energy system towards low carbon. Very long reinvestment cycles, large capital intensity and a rather heterogeneous ownership structure make this transformation a challenge for governments to identify policy paths that comply with the long-term targets.


This report provides a comprehensive list of different instrument options all of which are targeting at modernisation measures in the building sector thus addressing the multiple and often target-group specific barriers in the built environment.


  • Report that provides an overview and assessment of principle integrated policy sets that aim at the nZEB standard is available here (2,2MB, PDF)

Public and social acceptance of nZEB

Report on specific features of public and social acceptance and perception of nearly zero-energy buildings and renewable heating and cooling in Europe with a specific focus on the target countries.

This report explores the factors influencing public acceptance of nearly-zero energy building solutions and renewable heating and cooling in the building sector.


The aim of this report is to:


  • Identify the current status of public perception and social acceptance of energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions in buildings in participating countries and
  • Identify key factors underlying social acceptance, such as risks, initial costs, visibility, types of organizations promoting the technology and barriers to acceptance.




Literature review of key stakeholders

Investigate the structure of stakeholders, user and investor groups and their behaviour, preferences and interests.

One key aspect in developing successful policies is knowing the way in which building owners, users and other stakeholders in different countries react to policy measures. There are great differences among countries, as well as among owner types, which may be very important for the success of European policies. The objectives of the task are to:
  • Make a classification of the relevant stakeholders with regard to investment decision making and user behaviour.
  • Identify the stakeholder-specific barriers to the application of energy efficient technologies and describe the causal relationships between certain constraints and investment decision making.
  • Identify similarities and differences in investment decisions among the target countries.
The report is available here:

Integrating user and investment behaviour in bottom-up Energy-economic simulation models

Literature review of integrating user and investment behaviour in bottom-up simulation models


This report describes our approach how to take into account barriers and stakeholder behaviour in the modelling and scenario development. Thus, the report links the analysis of barriers with the modelling and scenario results. It can be found in the section 'Results, recommendations'.